The folks over at Make Magazine have written a wonderful article on the difference between the Raspberry Pi and the Arduino. Here’s a sample:
Here at Make: we see new, ingenious projects from our community every day. Many of these projects are made possible with the use of development boards. However, if you’re new to the whole idea, it can be confusing to parse out the differences between boards and the advantages of using one over another.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO?
An Arduino is a microcontroller motherboard. A microcontroller is a simple computer that can run one program at a time, over and over again. It is very easy to use.
A Raspberry Pi is a general-purpose computer, usually with a Linux operating system, and the ability to run multiple programs. It is more complicated to use than an Arduino.
We’ve created this super simple guide to help you get started. Then, when you’re ready, head to the Maker Shed to check out Arduino and Raspberry Pi Starter Kits, which come with all the goodies you need for your inaugural projects. Not sure you want all those peripherals yet? Start with the essentials: Grab the board of your choice and guide yourself with our Getting Started With series for Arduino and for Raspberry Pi.